Traumas may be single events, such as the loss of a parent, a violent domestic crime, or a destructive act of nature. Traumas may be ongoing horrific acts, such as repeated sexual abuse, a pattern of adult-on-child violence, or exposure to repeated conflict in the home. Traumas may be chronic and the result of circumstances, such as homelessness, generational poverty, or foster care placement (Children and Trauma, 2008).
Trauma-Informed Practices (TIPs):
Definition: Based on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) definition of a trauma-informed approach, trauma-informed practice is “a program, organization, or system” that
Realizes the widespread impact of trauma and understands potential paths for recovery;
Recognizes the signs and symptoms of trauma in clients, families, staff, and others involved with the system;
Responds by fully integrating knowledge about trauma into policies, procedures, and practices; and
Seeks to actively resist re-traumatization.
Principles of Trauma-Informed Teaching and Learning (Adapted from Cole, Eisner, Gregory, & Ristuccia, 2013; SAMHSA, 2014; St. Andrews, 2013)
Physical, Emotional, Social, and Academic Safety
Trustworthiness and Transparency
Support and Connection4.Inclusiveness and Shared Purpose
Collaboration and Mutuality
Empowerment, Voice, and Choice
Cultural, Historical, and Gender Issues
Growth and Change
A holistic approach to education in which all teachers, school administrators, staff, students, families, and community members recognize and respond to the behavioral, emotional, relational, and academic impact of traumatic stress on those within the school system.
Recommended Introductory Readings:
Duffy, M. & R. Comly. (March 2019).Trauma-Informed Schools in Pennsylvania: Aligning Expansion with High-Quality Implementation. PACER Policy Brief.
Pawlo, E., Lorenzo, A., Eichert, B., & Elias, M. J. (2019). All SEL Should Be Trauma-Informed. Phi Delta Kappan, 101(3), 37–41.
Thomas, M. S., Crosby, S., & Vanderhaar, J. (2019). Trauma-informed practices in schools across two decades: An interdisciplinary review of research. Review of Research in Education, 43(1), 422–452. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X18821123
Recommended Search Terms: Mix and match these in databases in search engines to find additional readings. Use quotation marks to hold exact phrases together. Example: "Trauma Informed"
adverse childhood experiences (ACE), trauma-informed care, trauma-informed schools, trauma informed practices, trauma-informed teaching, teacher training, trauma, teaching methods, emotional trauma, intervention, school based intervention, childhood adversity, posttraumatic stress disorder, socio-emotional development
Free books/handbooks (PDFs) or Library E-Books
Volume 1: A Report and Policy Agenda (2005)
Volume 2: Creating and Advocating for Trauma-Sensitive Schools
Jaycox, L. H. (Ed.). (2006). How schools can help students recover from traumatic experiences: A tool-kit for supporting long-term recovery. Rand Gulf States Policy Institute. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2006/RAND_TR413.pdf
Hannigan, J. D., & Hannigan, J. E. (2020). Building behavior: The educator’s guide to evidence-based initiatives. Corwin. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071800492 See Chapter 6.
Margolius, M., Pufall Jones, E., Hynes, M. (2020). Creating cultures of care: Supporting the whole child through trauma-informed practice. Washington, DC: America’s Promise Alliance. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED606309.pdf
More Library Ebooks may be available. Search:
Some videos on Trauma Informed Practices in Schools
Children, Violence and Trauma—Interventions in Schools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=49GzqPP7YYk
Modules on creating trauma informed care in schools, Madison Metropolitan School District. There are 10 modules, here are a few of them:
It might be useful in the course of your research to know some leading scholars in this field of study. This list is not exhaustive, but should provide a starting point for exploring available literature around the topic of trauma-informed responses in education.
Primo Search - Search books, articles, and media
Request Library Materials by Mail - Any remote, graduate students can request Murray Library materials to be mailed to your home. Free service.
Interlibrary Loan - Free service to retrieve books and articles not owned by Messiah
Ask a Librarian - Sarah Myers
APA Citation Manual - APA examples for formatting reference pages and in-text citations. See green "Learn" tab.
ZBib - Bibliography & citation creator (you are responsible for double-checking accuracy)